Every woman should know about the dangerous pathology, which according to statistics is overtaken by 10-15% of women – an ectopic pregnancy. In order to avoid complications, it is necessary to have some knowledge about its occurrence and flow. First of all, you need to understand that the occurrence of an ectopic pregnancy is quite unpredictable.
This pathology has been described in medical manuals since the 11th century. Until recently, neglected forms led only to death. Today, with the help of modern surgery, this problem is solved much easier. Functional medical technology allows operations to be carried out and reduces risks to operations practically to zero. However, gynecologists around the world report an increase in the average statistical cases, which are quite difficult for diagnosis.
- 1 What is an ectopic pregnancy and how does it arise?
- 2 Causes of ectopic pregnancy
- 3 Does the test indicate ectopic pregnancy?
- 4 What are the signs (symptoms) of an ectopic pregnancy?
- 5 Can I determine the ectopic pregnancy?
- 6 Treatment of ectopic pregnancy
- 7 Save or delete the pipe?
- 8 Is pregnancy possible after ectopic pregnancy and what are its features?
- 9 What are the chances of repeating an ectopic pregnancy?
What is an ectopic pregnancy and how does it arise?
In normal pregnancy, the fetal egg, leaving the fallopian tubes, is attached to the uterus, where it continues to develop until the very birth. In pathological pregnancies, a fertilized egg does not enter the uterus. This common pathology does not stop to surprise doctors. Whence it is not necessary to extract to them an incorrectly attached fetal egg. It can be fallopian tubes, ovaries, abdominal cavity. Ectopic tubal pregnancy is most common.
The delay of the egg in the pipes indicates their insufficient patency. Within a month after attaching the fertilized egg to the tube wall, having increased in size, it can lead to rupture of the tube. In this case, the probability of bleeding with the ingress of blood into the abdominal cavity is very high. The life of a woman from this moment is under threat. That is why it is so important when planning a pregnancy, undergo a full examination and eliminate possible violations.
Causes of ectopic pregnancy
Why is this phenomenon happening? How does the egg go astray from the “course” and find itself in a place not intended for development? It’s all about the fallopian tubes, whose patency is broken as a result of any factors. Almost always this is preceded by abortions or heavy births, transferred or current inflammatory diseases of the genitals, infections. The mucous membrane of the uterus swells in some places, the tubes lose the ability to contract.
Ectopic pregnancy can occur in the case of inadequate development (infantilism). Infantile tubes are long, narrow and sinuous, with narrowed lumens. They are not able to contract and push the egg forward to the uterus. At a certain stage, the villous begins to develop in the fetal egg to attach to the development and receive a constant blood supply. If at certain times the egg does not come to the uterus, it is attached to the place where it is located. Thin and delicate walls of pipes do not stretch like uterine tissues, so soon their tear comes. It happens about 4-6 weeks. As a result of the rupture, blood rushes into the abdominal cavity, nausea and severe pains in the lower abdomen resemble fights. Often there is a loss of consciousness. Ruptured large vessels can lead to death.
Sometimes the scenario takes place in a different direction, and the fetal egg, bursting, flows into the abdominal cavity. And with it, and a certain amount of blood, there may also be nausea and spotting. Pipe abortion occurs accompanied by severe pain, which after a while subsides. A woman can relax, thinking that everything is over. However, it’s still too early to rejoice. In any case, it is necessary to urgently turn to specialists to exclude the possible development of peritonitis – a purulent inflammation of the abdominal cavity.
Does the test indicate ectopic pregnancy?
The test shows an ectopic pregnancy as well as a normal pregnancy! It is possible to detect the difference only as a result of ultrasound examination. All simply a fertilized egg in the uterus will not, and not finding it on ultrasound specialists, will conduct additional checks and will be able to diagnose pathology already at the earliest possible time. Already in the second week of pregnancy, the deviation can be diagnosed by inserting the uzi sensor into the vaginal cavity. Next, a diagnostic laparoscopy is given, giving the most accurate results. Another method is a hormonal blood test. After a significant increase in the level of chorionic hormone (hCG) at this time may decrease.
What are the signs (symptoms) of an ectopic pregnancy?
Among the first signs – spotting from the vagina (may be minor). Then the painful sensations in the lower abdomen, increasing as the pathology develops to very strong, sometimes cramping.
Can I determine the ectopic pregnancy?
It is difficult to put an exact diagnosis to yourself – but you can suspect the wrong with the above signs. If the ordinary symptoms of pregnancy (delayed periods, irritability, toxicosis, violation of taste preferences, etc.) are added, even mild aching pains in the lower abdomen and at least small bloody discharge – immediately RUN for gynecological examination to exclude pathology.
With the slightest suspicion of ectopic pregnancy, specialists suggest monitoring in the hospital. This should not be discarded, since the necessary examinations to determine the location of implantation of the embryo are easier to conduct in a hospital. In the early stages of detection, doctors will be able to interrupt it in sparing ways.
Treatment of ectopic pregnancy
There are several ways of treatment, applied at different stages. With the slightest suspicion of ectopic pregnancy, specialists suggest monitoring in the hospital. This should not be discarded, since the necessary examinations to determine the location of implantation of the embryo are easier to conduct in a hospital. In the early stages of detection, doctors will be able to interrupt it in sparing ways.
Malotravmatichesky method (laparoscopy) is proposed in the case when the fetal egg still retained the container. Through a small incision, the desired instrument is inserted into the skin. The laparoscope device has an optical system, so all manipulations and the operating field are displayed on the monitor of the device. This is a fairly safe operation. The surrounding tissues and organs do not hurt, there is no risk of adhesions and scarring, and there are practically no deaths. The device “sucks” the fetal egg, acting as a mini-abortion. A great consolation for a woman is that such an operation prevents injury to the pipe, and after a course of treatment after a while the woman can again become pregnant.
Save or delete the pipe?
You can save the pipe if the gap has not yet occurred, or is insignificant. When salpingus is a closed surgical operation. After it, recovery is much quicker, less blood flows, and the patient is in the hospital much less time, and the procedure itself is less painful. Removal of the tube during examination is called salpingectomy. This procedure greatly reduces the risk of a repeated deviation in the bearing of the child.
In some women (4 – 8%), the tissues of pregnancy remain in the cavity of the tubes, so the doctor can suggest the administration of a drug that stops the growth of tissues. This is methotrexate, a drug sometimes used as an alternative to surgery. It is used at the earliest stages of pregnancy, while pregnancy hormones have increased slightly. This drug leads to the absorption of the tissues of pregnancy by the body. It is required to inject several injections, after which bleeding occurs within a few weeks. With early diagnosis of the disease and early surgery, this procedure may not be necessary. The best decision on the appointment of treatment is taken by a doctor.
Is pregnancy possible after ectopic pregnancy and what are its features?
After liberation from ectopic pregnancy, monitoring and “wait and see” tactics are monitored. If only one of the tubes is damaged or removed, the chances of a new pregnancy are quite high. However, they may not be reduced due to the cause of the disease. It can be an infection or an inflammation. They must be cured. With one working tube it is possible to become pregnant and perfectly bear a child. Approximately within 18 months, 6 out of 10 women become pregnant again.
How long should I wait?
Gynecologists recommend waiting at least three months before trying again. After a serious surgery, you should wait six months to heal all the scars. After using methotrexate, you need to wait three cycles to make sure that the drug is completely removed from the body.
What are the chances of repeating an ectopic pregnancy?
The chances of recurrence of an ectopic pregnancy are almost the same as for the first violation: 10-15%. The prognosis is rather blurred, as everything depends on the specific organism of the woman and the circumstances. It is almost impossible to insure against this. However, special attention should be given to the treatment of infections, for example, chlamydia, in order to exclude further damage to the fallopian tubes. If a new pregnancy is found, it is better to see a doctor as soon as possible, so that he sends an ultrasound scan. Make sure that this time the embryo develops correctly.