Holidays February 2
In Canada, this day is revered as a traditional folk festival. Every year, people gather together only to look at the marmot that comes out of its mink. The behavior of the animal can be guessed when the long-awaited spring comes. When the weather is cloudy in the street, the marmot can not see its shadow, because of this he climbs out of his mink without fear. This means that soon the winter will end and the early spring will come. In sunny weather, when the marmot sees its shadow, it returns to the mink. In some cities and settlements of this state, various festivals are organized, timed to the marmot meteorologists who are in this area. Many people are present at the festivities. This holiday appeared many years ago. Today, you can count the seven most popular marmots that are responsible for the weather forecast. The Panksatônei marmot is called Phil, Wyrth is called Willy, Chuck lives in the Staten Island, the Balsak marmot calls Billy, and Shubinakadsky is called Sam. In addition, there is a Marmot, who is called Jimia and marmot Gen. Bearegard Lee. In Punxsattani, in the mountains of Pennsylvania, there is the turkey hill, it is home to the most important official meteorological marmot. For more than 120 years, people have been very attentive to the behavior and forecasts of this small rodent. This event is accompanied by the organization of the festival, which gained its popularity immediately after the screen was released a film called “Groundhog Day”.
The Meeting of the Lord with Western Christians
This holiday was established due to one significant Christian event. On this day in the Temple of Jerusalem the Infant Jesus and the righteous elder Simeon met. The mother of Jesus brought him to the temple after the forty-day period after his birth expired in order to perform the purification rite. When the Virgin came to the temple, she was met by Saint Simeon, he could not die until he saw Christ. Next to him was the elderly Anna, she also lived in this temple. As the evangelist Luke narrated, when Mary was holding the Infant, staying in the Temple, the righteous Simeon approached her. When he saw Jesus, he lifted him in his arms and said that now he could calmly die. In the Catholic Church, this great day is called somewhat differently. They remember the words that the righteous Simeon said about the baby Jesus, Catholics called him “light to enlighten the pagan population”. On this great day, at eleven o’clock in the morning, in the churches it is customary to consecrate candles, which are then lit when the worship is held. These consecrated candles are very important for believing people, people store them throughout the year, and are lit only in case of prayer to Christ. For example, during illness, family difficulties and in general in the event of all sorts of troubles that occur throughout the life of a person. This holiday is considered a very ancient event of the Christian Church. In 528, the Emperor Justinian reigned. At that time in Antioch there was a major earthquake, which resulted in the death of many people. On this, unfortunately, the troubles did not end, and soon the human population was struck by a pestilence. Thousands of people died every year from ulcers. At that time, one pious Christian was visited with insight, and he realized that the Lord’s Savior should be celebrated more solemnly. This day was celebrated with divine service and the procession of the cross, Byzantium got rid of misfortunes. The Church expressed immense gratitude to the Almighty and found it necessary to celebrate this day in a more festive atmosphere. In this manner, he was among the 12 most solemn festivals of all the churches, which were considered to be twelve. The Russian Orthodox Church celebrates this day according to the new style of the calendar.
Day of candles
On February 2, the day of the candles is celebrated according to the national calendar in Estonia. It was customary for the people to say that it was on the day of the candles that winter was “broken in half”. This holiday was prepared ritual food, which was considered porridge and various delicious dishes from pork. The candles were made without fail. Feast Day of candles, this is the first big holiday for the female population in the year, women needed to drink juice or wine, always red, it was believed that all summer they will be healthy and beautiful. According to the ancient tradition, women were allowed to go to a tavern or other institution where they sold alcohol, and men on this holiday had to do all the housework, in a word, all the women’s work. In the calendar of troublesome jobs that day began to knit and spin.
The name of the holiday comes from the Irish word mblec – “milk”. They mark imbolk not only in Ireland, but also in other European countries. According to Irish mythology, the Mother of Bread found a rest on the Earth of Spirits, it gained strength. After all, on Samaina, she gave all her power to the Lord, that he could recover and be reborn faster. Imbolk is a holiday of recovery, purification and regeneration of the Earth. The holiday is a symbol of the growing phase of the Goddess of Bread, a reborn virgin. In Celtic mythology, the day of February 2, is the most auspicious day for witchcraft rituals. On this day, witches and warlocks pass through esoteric initiation. In fact Imbolc pagan holiday, on the day of its celebration, magical rituals and sacrifices are held. On this day, they guessed and were bound to wash themselves with river water, as a sign of purification from sins. In Imbolk it was impossible to sew, drink spirits, any handicraft skill was forbidden. On Imbolka day, only dairy food was taken, but it could be combined with raisins, meat and pepper, onions and garlic. The subject of the sacrifice usually became a chicken or a chicken. In Imbolk, they were wondering at the grooms and the future, they wished each other the best.
February 2 in the national calendar
February 2 Efimov’s Day
This day was named in honor of Efimius the Great, it is also called Euphemia the Benefactor or Efimius the Scheme, he lived his life at the end of the fourth century. Yefim was revered as a hermit, one of the founders of the desert and monasticism. The month of February is considered a mass of snowstorms. The peasants liked to say that blizzards and snowstorms arrived in February. Yefimov’s day was no exception. On this day, they wondered what the weather would be like at Maslenitsa. If it happened that this day there was a blizzard in the yard, it meant that in the spring there would also be a snowstorm. If the sun was shining during the day it spoke of a rainy summer; and if there was a strong wind, the peasants believed that the whole year on the street would be damp. Observed in Efimov day for the behavior of animals living in the house. The peasants knew the sign, when the cat scratched the floor with the paw, and the hens in the hen-house twisted their tails, so there would be a blizzard.
Historical events on 2 February
2 February 962 the creation of the Holy Roman Empire – the First Reich
The German state, formed in 962 and lasted until 1805. The King of the Franks, Otto I, viewed the newly formed state as a natural extension of the ancient Roman Empire. The new state occupied quite a large territory, it included: the German lands, northern and middle parts of Italy, the Swiss cantons, Burgundy, the Netherlands, the Belgian kingdom, the Czech Republic and other countries. Formally, the core of the empire were Germany, Italy and Burgundy. On February 2, 962, Pope John XII, crowned the imperial reign, the German king Otto the Great. Thanks to the activities of the Emperor Otto, the Holy Roman Empire reached a high level of socio-economic stability. During his reign, the emperor, put an end to internecine wars. Otto was a talented and wise politician, this became the guarantee of the unity of the whole state and military power. In history, the reign of Emperor Otto, named as the “Ottonian Renaissance.”
2 February 1536 the Spaniards founded Buenos Aires
February 2, 1536, on the Parana River, laid the capital of the new state – Buenos Aires. The city is located 150 kilometers from the Atlantic coast. The new capital was originally only a small village, which was originally formed to search for silver and gold in these lands. Buenos Aires means – good air. In 1541 the Spanish conquistadors left the fortress settlement because of the constant ruinous raids of Indian tribes. Once the Indians broke into the fortress and interrupted the garrison, burned it. Constant armed clashes with Indian tribes and the difficulty in delivering materials and supplies forced for a long time to leave these lands. In 1580, the Governor of the province of La Plata, Juan de Garay, defeated the tribes of the Indians and returned the fortress of Santa Maria de los Buenos Aires. Since that time, the city grew rapidly and developed, the basis of the city’s economy, was almost legal smuggling and silver mining. Soon the city was so enriched that it could afford, to erect magnificent palaces, temples, theaters, apartment houses and chic parks. Struck by the growing prosperity and beauty of the city, foreigners called it the “Paris of South America”.
2 February 1701 By order of Tsar Peter I the Baltic Fleet was founded
On February 2, 1701, Tsar Peter I, by his decree approved the creation of a military fleet in the Baltic Sea. Peter wished to begin building ships on the Ladoga Lake, it was planned to build 18 medium sloops that would be equipped with guns. The king wished that the new fleet would be based in Kronstadt. Battleship “baptism” the Baltic fleet took in the Northern War, in this conflict with Sweden, the fleet came out victorious. The Baltic Fleet has become famous not only in the military field, but also in the geographic sphere. Famous Russian navigators, on ships of the Baltic fleet, performed outstanding sea voyages and discoveries. In the 19th century, the ships of the Baltic fleet were covered with armor, most of them were destroyed in the Russo-Japanese War of 1905. In the early 1910s, the Baltic Fleet was replenished with new and modern ships with steam traction. After that, the fleet received the official name and became known as the Sea Forces of the Baltic Sea. Until the 1950s, the Baltic Fleet was the largest and most capable naval unit. In our time, the Baltic Fleet is much inferior to the Pacific and Black Sea fleets, but in the Baltic Sea basin the fleet continues to carry watch at the western cordons of the country. The fleet headquarters is located in Kaliningrad.
2 February 1542 Battle of Bacent
The Battle of Basente, is a striking episode of the Adal-Ethiopian War. In the military conflict, the troops of Portugal, who arrived in Ethiopia, participated in order to support the Christian African country with the Muslim emirate Adal. Portugal certainly decided to support the Emperor Claudius, who ruled Christian Ethiopia. The country was threatened by Muslim tribes Afar and Somalia, raiding and exhausting Islamists with their raids Ethiopia. In the Battle of Basenta, the Portuguese put up about 400 arquebusiers and dozens of artillery pieces. The Empress of Ethiopia Sabla, did not strongly believe in the success of the Portuguese, because numerically Muslims outnumbered the Portuguese hundreds of times. Sabla advised to postpone the storming of the Muslim fortress and wait for the arrival of the main Ethiopian troops. However, the command of the Portuguese army decided not to wait for the approach of the troops of Claudius. Very soon, the Portuguese stormed a Muslim fortress, while guns were used, which frightened the half-wild aphar and Somalis. About eight people died from the Portuguese forces, while thousands of soldiers died in the camp of nomads. The rest fled.
2 February 2009 Iran launched into orbit Earth satellite Omid
Omid satellite was launched into a near-earth orbit on 02.02.2009, the purpose of launching a spacecraft was to establish a telecommunications connection. The satellite was launched independently, without the help of any third countries. The satellite was launched into a near-earth orbit by the Safir-2 launch vehicle. According to the Iranian government, the satellite was created in 2008, the device was completely designed and built by Iranian specialists and scientists. Iran has a number of large plants producing space technology. The satellite made about 15 revolutions around the Earth, for this the device took a day. The satellite showed its high reliability and efficiency. Among the main goals of the satellite, it should be noted the collection of meteorological and geomagnetic information. In addition, the satellite had to establish digital, television and Internet communications. This is the second launched spacecraft, which shows the rapid development of the space industry in the Iranian Republic. It is surprising that the country is able to create its own spacecraft of complex design, which indicates the scientific and technical progress of Iran.
February 2 were born
Mikhail Frunze (February 2, 1885 – October 31, 1925), the Soviet military leader
Mikhail Frunze was born 02/02/1885 in Kyrgyzstan, in the family of doctors. In 1904, Misha graduated from the gymnasium and entered the Polytechnic University in St. Petersburg. In the same place, he began his revolutionary activities. In 1905, in the days of the first Russian revolution, Mikhail was on the side of the insurgent people and took an active part in street fighting. Twice he was sentenced to death, but execution was replaced by hard labor. In exile, Mikhail also continued revolutionary activity, engaged in Bolshevik propaganda. During the civil war, Frunze was a military commissar, a number of military districts. In 1919, Frunze commanded large armies and successfully fights against Kolchak. Further, Frunze is appointed commander of the army fought with basmachi in Central Asia. Then he was transferred to the Southern Front, where he fought against the Baron Wrangel. After the end of the civil war, Frunze holds important posts in the Bolshevik government: the chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR, the people’s commissar of military affairs, the chief of staff of the Red Army. He was the initiator of military reform in the USSR.
Yasha Kheifets (February 2, 1901 – December 10, 1987), the greatest violinist of the twentieth century
Yasha Heifetz was born 02/02/1901 in Vilnius, in the family of musicians and teachers. From early childhood, parents taught their son to play the violin, the boy was deeply erudite and for this he was nicknamed a child prodigy. At the age of 5, Yasha entered the music school of the imperial music community. At the age of seven, he makes his debut at a concert in Kaunas, and at the age of nine, he goes to study at the St. Petersburg Conservatory. Since childhood, he has been touring a lot, and when he gets to the US, he decides to stay there. During the Second World War, Kheifets toured extensively on the fronts of the Allied forces. Heifetz’s performances were distinguished by high level of performance, deep meaning and powerful sound accompaniment. In 1934, the musician visited the USSR. In 1953, he stayed with a tour in Israel, where he nearly died at the hands of anti-fascists, for the performance of the music of German composers. Since 1972 Heifetz stopped touring and started teaching.
Mikhail Gnesin (February 2, 1883 – May 5, 1957), the composer
Mikhail Gnesin was born 02/02/1883 in Rostov, in a Jewish family. The family was talented and musical, in 1895 Mikhail’s sisters founded a music school in Moscow. In the future, this school will become the music academy named after Gnesins. In 1909, Mikhail graduated from the Moscow Conservatoire. In parallel with his studies, Michael leads a music group. In the early 20-ies he founded in Russia a folk music school and a conservatory. Gnesin became the founder of the Soviet Jewish music school. Since 1923 he teaches music and soon becomes a professor at the Moscow Conservatory. He released many famous musicians, composers and conductors. Since the mid-1920s, Gnesin has been trying his best to enter the Soviet musical culture. He composes a number of monumental works on Soviet-patriotic themes. Gnesin created almost 50 musical works, among them: romances, plays, folk melodies and symphonic works. Mikhail Gnesin also wrote many books on music, drama and philosophy. He treated the Soviet authorities with restraint and never sincerely supported it.
Valery Chkalov (February 2, 1904 – December 15, 1938), an outstanding Soviet pilot
Valery Chkalov was born on February 2, 1904 in the Nizhny Novgorod province, in a family of workers. He graduated from a simple rural school, and then VZO. In 1919 he joined the ranks of the Red Army, where he worked as a master repair aircraft. After the Civil War, he studied at Yegoryevskaya and Borisoglebskaya aviation schools. Then he underwent special training at the shooting and bombing training center, at the Moscow Aviation School. Since 1924, he began to serve in aviation, working as a test pilot. In 1936, Chkalov, along with Baidukov and Belyakov, made a revolutionary flight from Moscow to Petropavlovsk-on-Kamchatka, across the Arctic Ocean. For the performance of this particularly complex and dangerous task, Chkalov was awarded the title of Hero of the USSR. In 1937, Chkalov commits a new flight record, crossed the North Pole, breaking the distance from Moscow to the United States. The pilot overcame a distance of 12,000 kilometers. He died in 1938 during the next test flight.
James Joyce (February 2, 1882 – January 13, 1941), a great Irish writer and poet
James Joyce was born in Dublin (Ireland), on February 2, 1882, in an ordinary Irish family. Joyce’s childhood was in a tense situation, the family lived not richly and often simply was poor. Joyce received first-class education at the Jesuit College at Dublin University. In 1900 he timidly begins his literary activity and writes essays and poems, the poet was published in many magazines and newspaper publications. At the age of twenty-two, the writer went to Paris, where he worked as a teacher and journalist. After Paris, Joyce lived for a long time in Switzerland. To publish his poems and novels, Joyce was very difficult because of censorship considerations. His novel “Ulysses”, was severely criticized and declared a vulgar and depraved work, besides he was banned for publication in Britain and the United States. Still, the owner of the printing house Sylvia Beach risked publishing a novel, which in the future will be recognized as a genius. Many of his works were not understood by critics or readers, but they are still considered masterpieces of world literature.
Namedays on February 2
Artem, Inna, Zahar, Rimma, Leo, Paul