Peonies are very unpretentious and characterized by a relatively long flowering, thanks to which the florists’ love has won.
Taxonomy totals 32 types this plant.
According to the structure of the flower, peonies are subdivided into double, semi-double, non-maral, anemoid and Japanese.
The flowering period can be early, late or average.
The plant blooms blossom without transplantation for more than ten years, however, for this purpose it is necessary initially to choose the right place, source material, and also follow certain recommendations for care.
Multiplication by division
This method is the most popular among florists. To achieve a good adaptation of the plant in a new location, it is important to observe the necessary conditions for the preparation of the site and the planting technology itself. It should be noted that planting material obtained from 3 to 4-year-old shrubs is best planted. Plentiful flowering in the first and even the second year of planting is not worth waiting for, but with each year the peonies will be steadily growing. If the cultivation of peonies is done to decorate the flowerbed, they are often not transplanted.
How to select a planting material
The most suitable time for planting – mid-August. Before the arrival of frost, the plant will have time to take root. Planting can also be done in the spring, however, one should take into account that the roots of pions begin to grow early, so the process should be carried out as soon as possible and in a short time.
Delenki should not be taken too large, but not less than 7 cm in diameter. They should have 3 – 5 eyes and undamaged roots. The planting material is inspected, the decayed or dried parts of the plant are removed, if necessary, disinfection with a solution of potassium permanganate or copper sulfate. The surface of the slices is poured with crushed coal. It is important that the roots do not dry up before planting, so they are poured into a trench or covered with a wet burlap.
How to choose and prepare a landing site
When choosing a place to grow pions, you need to consider that they love the sun and are afraid of drafts. Although a small air circulation will prevent the breeding of pests. You can not plant plants near the walls or fence, because when the scorching sun from their surface will come heat, which will negatively affect the condition of the bushes. A prerequisite for abundant flowering is the absence of nearby trees that will cast a shadow.
There should not be close groundwater in the site, but if this can not be avoided, drainage must be made, which is gravel or broken brick. Peonies grow well on the raised flower beds and groups. The distance between the bushes is at least one meter. And that the flower bed had an aesthetic appearance and in the early spring, between them I plant crocuses, muscari or other early flowering plants. The place for planting is prepared in advance, about a month. Peonies prefer loamy, well digged soils, grow very poorly on peat.
For one bush digs a pit deep and about 60 cm in diameter. It is filled with humus or compost, sand, peat and ordinary earth from the garden in equal proportions for two thirds. It should be about the bucket of each component. To this mixture is added iron vitriol (1 tbsp.), Potash (1 tsp), wood ash (1 L), as well as double superphosphate (250 g) or bone meal (500 g). Such top dressing is necessary for intensive growth of roots that need nutrients. The rest of the space during the landing will be filled with vegetable garden land. The acidity of the soil should eventually be between 6.0 and 6.5. In the event that the ground is prepared directly before planting, it is watered and sealed by hand to tamp it.
The depth of planting is one of the most important factors for the normal rooting of pions. So, at a great depth – peonies do not soon bloom, and when shallow – the pieces can dry or freeze. Therefore, on loamy soils, they are planted 4-5 cm below the surface of the earth, and on sandy-loamy soils – by 6-7 cm. After closing the bush, watering is done with 5-8 lire of water, as well as mulching with humus or peat. In dry weather, watering should be repeated several times with an interval of 5 days.
In the year of planting bushes for winter should be hidden. For this purpose, use leaves, needles or humus. A necessary condition for using straw is the use of poisoned baits for mice. With the correct planting and further growth of pions by the age of 5, the root system will reach 80 cm in diameter and grow to 60 cm deep even without additional feeding for the first few years.
Growing pions by seed method
This method of growing pions is used quite rarely among amateur growers. There are several reasons for this, firstly, because it is likely that the characteristics of the variety are split, and secondly, flowering occurs only in the fifth or sixth year after planting; thirdly, it is a labor-intensive process that requires certain knowledge. Seed reproduction is of great importance in the selection of new varieties.
Germination of own seeds
Features of pion seeds are their low enzymatic activity, because of which they germinate only in the second year after sowing. This requires stratification in two stages. You can accelerate the production of sprouts, using seeds of your own collection. It should be borne in mind that the ripened seeds are not fully harvested. The collection period lasts about a month and begins in mid-August. Seed sowing must be carried out immediately. The depth of occurrence in the ridges is about 5 cm. In this way the seeds undergo a double stratification: warm at a temperature regime of 16 to 28 ° C and cold (5-10 ° C). Seed ripening can be expected as early as next year.
Experienced specialists use some tricks to speed up the production of seedlings. At the stage of warm stratification, the seeds are subjected to daily temperature changes: at night – 15 ° C, and in the daytime – about 30 ° C. At this stage, the root appears. Acceleration of cold stratification is carried out by means of specific feeding of material. For this, the hypocotyl, part of the stem under the cotyledons, is treated with a 0.01% solution of gibberellic acid. This connection acts as a growth regulator. The process consists in wetting the bandage with a solution and applying it to a slightly open hypocotyl.
A necessary condition is to maintain a sufficient level of moisture, for which the seedling is covered with a glass or a cap made of translucent material, and the temperature regime is 5-10 ° C. If the growth bud does not appear after 7-10 days, the whole process is repeated anew. Then the seedlings recover in a warm room, where the temperature is maintained at 16-18 ° C.
Getting seedlings from purchased seeds
Such seeds can have a hardened shell because of a long shelf life. To facilitate poklevyvanie them it is recommended to soak for two days in water at room temperature. If seed sowing is carried out at the end of the summer, then they can be immediately sent to the ground.
Fundamentally, germination of seeds is similar to the above method. Seeds are placed in a bowl with moistened soil. At the cold stage of stratification, the night temperature is maintained at 15 ° C, the daytime temperature is 30 ° C. Periodic watering is carried out by moistening from the spray gun. To regulate the temperature when growing pions from seeds at home, it is recommended to use a heating pad with a thermoregulator.
Sprouted seeds of pions
The second “cold” stage of stratification begins after the appearance of rootlets. Seeds are transplanted into fertile soil and transferred in a room with a lower temperature (5 – 10 ° C). And after the appearance of the first leaves again put in heat (18 – 20 ° C). If desired, you can carry out procedures with gibberellic acid. On the flower bed, where peonies will be constantly, the seedlings will be planted by the end of August.
What is regular care for pions
Caring for bushes when growing pions is to weed, loosen, fertilize, water and destroy pests. Loosening of the soil is recommended after rain or watering. After 4 – 5 years after planting, depending on the condition of plants, peonies should be fed once every 1-2 years. To feed plants, each bush is fertilized with humus (about one bucket), superphosphate and potassium chloride (each of 50 grams). Instead of humus, you can mulberry diluted 20 times.
A necessary condition for lush flowering is the consumption of moisture in dry weather. It is especially important not to allow soil to dry out during budding, bud development and flowering. Watering is carried out at least 10 liters of water per bush. In the first half of September, watering is stopped.
Growing pions has its own subtleties. So, to prevent lodging of bushes with strong gusts of wind or heavy rain, special supports are installed. Most often, flower growers use ordinary wire for this purpose. Cut flowers in such a way that leaves remain on the stem for further formation of the bush. When growing pion terry varieties to increase the size of flowers, the side buds are removed.
Palf’s pests and diseases
How to deal with pests
When growing pions, flower growers rarely encounter pests or diseases of bushes. Among the first, a lover of fragrant flowers of light shades, a beetle-bronze beetle, who lives in the remains of plants or manure, is most often found. It feeds on stamens, pistils and petals. An effective means for controlling the beetle is the infusion of cheremica, and various insecticides can also be used.
Gall nematodes lead to the destruction of the root system of pions, forming on it knotty swellings. In this case, prevention is of great importance, which consists in a thorough examination of planting material and regular harvesting of plant residues.
The sod red ant of the red-yellow color eats the petals and sweet nectar of the buds. To eliminate it, the plant and a small area near it are treated with special scaring agents. Shrubs planted in the shade or penumbra can be damaged by caterpillar butterflies-scoop.
What to do with pion diseases
The most common disease of pions is gray rot. It affects all parts of the plant and manifests itself in the form of a gray plaque. The stems first acquire a dark color, then they bend and fall. More vulnerable to gray rot young shoots, especially if the spring is cold and damp. To control the fungus, fungicides are treated.
Signs of rust is the appearance of yellow-brown spots on the leaves, the underside of which is covered with spores of the fungus. The risk of this disease increases if near the site grow pine. Spray the bushes of pions in the early spring with a solution of the Bordeaux liquid.
In the same way, there is a struggle with brown spotting. This fungus prefers a terrain with high humidity. The disease is characterized by the appearance of dark purple or brown spots on the leaves. First they are irregular in shape and small in size, and then cover the entire leaf plate. The brown spot also affects the buds, which first darkens, and then crumble.
Powdery mildew damages the leaves, causing them to turn yellow and die. To eliminate the fungus, peony bushes are sprayed with a solution in which 10 grams of water is added with 20 grams of copper sulfate and 200 – 250 grams of green soap.
When growing pions, you should remember that proper care is the best preventive remedy for the diseases of this plant. Good planting material, regular inspections of bushes, loosening the soil, fertilizing and watering, timely harvesting of plant residues are important conditions for the healthy growth of peonies.